NCNYC     Music of the 19th Century               MUS 319NA


                  Professor D. Talley                               FA 2010


Course Day and Time:  Thursday 11:10-1:00 PM


Room: B600 


Credits:  2


Office Hours:  4:00-5:00 Monday, 6:00-8:00 Tuesday, 4:00-5:00, 4:00-5:00 Wednesday, 3:30-4:30 Thursday, and by appointment: Please see my schedule, which is posted on the door of my office. If you need to schedule an appointment, please call our administrative assistant, Autumn Nova, (212) 625-0500 ext. 6188. 


Phone: (212) 927-1015 Home

              (917) 825 8697 cell

              (212) 625-0500 ext. 6187 Office



Course Description:  MUS 319-Music of the Nineteenth Century (2)


The music of Beethoven. The music of the Romantic Era, including those

composers who belong primarily to the nineteenth century. This course examines the music literature of the Romantic Period (1820-1900) and the composers and the cultural and political forces that played a role in the creation of the musical works of that era. Students will examine musical genre in order to develop an understanding of the musical style of 19th Century music, and will explore these stylistic concepts through listening, score study, and investigating published sources.


Required Textbook: Since this is a continuing class I will use the same text that was used for music history last semester as follows: Hanning, Barbara Russano, Concise History of Western Music (Fourth Edition) ISBN-13:9780393928037.  All the chapters referred to in the syllabus are from the fourth edition and the required chapter quizzes are from chapters 17-21.

Chapter 17: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)

Chapter 18: The Early Romantics

Chapter 19: Opera and Music Drama in the Nineteenth Century

Chapter 20: The Later Romantics

Chapter 21: Music in the Later Nineteenth Century: Europe, Nationalism, and the Classical Tradition in America


Optional Additional Sources (All of the following are found in our library):


1.    Paul Bekker, The Story of the Orchestra.  W. W. Norton, New York

2.    Arthur Friedheim, Life and LisztThe Recollections of a Concert Pianist.Taplinger Publishing, New York

3.    Lawrence and Elizabeth Hanson, Tchaikovsky.  Dodd, Mead, & Co., New York

4.    Kurt Sachs, Our Musical Heritage.  Prentice Hall, Englewood, NJ

5.    Harold Schonberg, The Lives of the Great Composers (Revised Edition).  W.W. Norton, New York, London

6.    Harold Schonberg, The Great Conductors.  Simon and Schuster, New York

7.    Roger Kamien, Ed., The Norton Scores, Vols. 1 and 2.  W. W. Norton, New York


Student Learning Goals:



Student Learning Goals
The Student will:

Music Program Goals

Core Goals

Assignments &/or Assessments Used

1.  Be able to identify and recognize important masterworks of the Romantic Era, their composers, and their stylistic idioms.

1a, 2b, 3b, 3e, 4d

 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c,3a, 3b, 4a, 5b

Readings, class discussions, written exams, listening exams,

2. Become familiar with repertoire of the main composers of the 19th century

1c, 3b, 3e, 5a, 5b

1a, 2a, 3b, 4a, 5b

Class listening, online listening, listening exams, web research listening projects

3. Be able to write an abstract of an individually or selected topic which addresses some aspect of Romanticism in Music in the time period of the Romantic era.

1c, 2a, 3b, 3c

1b, 2a,  3a, 4a

Readings, research project, written exams

4. Develop an understanding of the historical context of the Romantic Era and will be able to discuss the musical genres and musical style with associations and parallel trends in art, politics, and technology.

1a, 1b, 4d, 5a, 5b

1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5b

Readings, class discussion, class lectures, written exams

5. Use various search systems to retrieve information in a variety of formats (IL Standard 2, 3a # VII) – see section below



Visit required class websites related to the course and execute assignments in the information literacy requirement.


Information Literacy Requirement


You are required to access and use the following websites:

1.  This is the general class website and includes the required information for this semester. All of the listening examples and outlines of the lectures are posted on the class website.

2.   The student will be required to listen to music from this website and identify examples on exams and use for examples for your term paper. The login is NYACK01 and the password is NYACK01.

3. Chapter outlines that help you study for your exams.

4.  Website for required chapter quizzes. (Replace 17 with the correct chapter)

5. In addition there will be YouTube listening and video examples added to a class channel each week.


Grading and Evaluation  (If a quiz or a midterm is missed the student will be assigned a paper instead of a make-up test):


Attendance, promptness, and class participation: 10%

Four chapter quizzes: 15% (5% each, with the lowest being dropped)

Midterm (listening included): 20%

Term project, Assigned research paper:  20%

Take home Opera quiz 10%

Final exam (listening included):  25%


Reporting of Grades: (Nyack Standard)



A   =   4.0  95-100%

A-  =   3.7  92-94

B+  =   3.3 88-91

B   =   3.0  83-87

B-  =   2.7  79-82

C+  =   2.3 76-78

C   =   2.0  72-75

C-  =   1.7  68-71

D+  =   1.3 65-67

D   =   1.0  62-64

D-  =   0.7  60-61

F   =   0.0 below 60%



Attendance and Punctuality:


Students are expected to attend every class and are to arrive on time. In the unusual event that an absence is unavoidable, it is the student’s responsibility to obtain the relevant notes, materials, videos, or recordings from a fellow student. If you are 20 minutes late, it will be considered half an absence. For your second and third absence you will receive a 1/2 letter grade reduction and after three cuts an F will be given).  Legitimate excuses include serious illness, such as flu or laryngitis, or a catastrophic event, such as a death in the immediate family.  A church service, “having issues,” or oversleeping are not acceptable reasons for being late or absent.  Please submit a signed statement from a health-care worker or other responsible person upon your return to class, whenever possible. Please, there is to be no eating, drinking, or gum-chewing in the

classroom.  Students are responsible for both class work and homework missed during days or times of absence or lateness, whether the absence is excused or not. You are required to ask your professor for a brief explanation of any material you have missed. Nyack College School of Music has student tutors to assist you if you do not understand assignments or homework. Seeking help from tutors when needed is not optional if you are asked to do so by the professor. You may also be required to go to The Writing Center for help on written work. Please provide evidence (a signed sheet from a tutor or initialed work from The Writing Center) that you have done this.  Term papers will NOT be accepted after the due date for any reason.


Required Term Paper: Papers are to be typed in Arial or Times New Roman font, not larger than 12 point, with one inch margins.  Illustrations may be used, but will not count toward the number of pages in the research paper. Each paper should be 10 pages long, not including the Bibliography, and should contain Chicago or Turabian style footnotes and a complete and correctly-notated bibliography.  If you have questions about how to cite sources, please refer to Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, or look at the following web page:

Sources for your research should include the public library, encyclopedias, biographies, and the Internet—in other words, you are required to use at least 3 good sources that are BOOKS in addition to the World Wide Web.  Papers that use only websites for sources will not be accepted.  A term paper is the result of your own research and YOUR opinion not a copy of previous work.  That is why you have multiple sources and differing viewpoints and then decide on your own opinion. 

Please look at the assignments at the end of this syllabus.  Your individual topic will be decided jointly with the professor. You will answer the specific questions as stated in the handout unless given permission to do a different investigation of the topic.  At the end of this syllabus is a listing of the subjects for your paper.  Please choose THREE and give me your choices before the end of week one and I will collate the choices and give you your topic at the second class.

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: In a Christian college academic integrity is particularly important.  Any student caught cheating or plagiarizing will be subject to the penalties as described in the plagiarism policy in the college catalog and student handbook. Plagiarism is defined as an act of “Literary Theft,” when the work of another is misrepresented as the original work of the Nyack College student. This may be done intentionally or unintentionally. When excerpts, thoughts, writings, or statements of others are used in papers, essays, or other projects, they must be acknowledged through footnotes, bibliography and other accepted Turabian practices and standards.


Library and Internet Resources For Your Term Paper:


Music databases on our library website: or 


Go to "Resources"(purple tab) and click "Article Resources (Alpha)."  Then you will see the alphabetical list of 91 databases.  Here are some examples: (Passwords given separately) 

Dram (Music Database) - Recordings and essays from the American and international repertoires (over 1500 CD's and 9800 compositions)

 Grove Music Online - Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Dictionary of Opera and Dictionary of Jazz (full-text)

Naxos Music Library - 256,000+ tracks of classical, jazz, world, folk, Chinese, and contemporary music with accompanying text notes on works, composers, and artists.

Piano Street -More than 10,000 pages of classical piano music to view or print


New York Public Library: 

Reference materials, recordings, repertoire, and even a listening center may be found at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, 40 Lincoln Center Plaza (212) 870-1630.  Any person residing or attending college in New York may request and receive a free public library card. If you use their search engine, LEO, you can ask up to 10 scores, 10 books, and 10 CD’s or DVD’s be delivered to YOUR local library in New York City. It is very hard to find material if you are not used to the Dewey system.  If you use Leo they will find everything for you.  Warning: It may take several weeks before material is delivered so plan ahead!


Outline of Classes:  The classes will follow the layout of the Hanning text, and cover chapters 17 through 21, in the textbook.  Most of our assigned listening will be on YouTube or the class website, and all assessments will include tests on required listening. At the end of week seven, a midterm will be given.  There will be a final and a term project, which will be a term paper, due no later than week 12 of the semester.

All the quizzes for each chapter must be completed by all students and e-mailed to the instructor,, before the chapter quiz listed in the class calendar. The questions from the online quizzes will appear on your exam given in class. You may take the quiz as often as you like but the results must be sent to the professor before the quiz is given in class.  Please use only the following website and follow the directions below exactly:

Click on the chapter that corresponds to the chapter quiz in the class calendar
Select the number of questions you would like: (always choose the maximum)
Fill out the information as it is listed when you finish the quiz:
First name:_________
Last name:_________
your email (Please put the email you use to write your professor)
Professor's email: (DO NOT USE:
Section: MUS 319.NA
Press send quiz

Calendar classes for the semester: The Lectures will follow the textbook, chapter 17 through the first part of chapter 21. The quizzes will be on both the chapters and class lectures. Each quiz, after the first one, will have 5 selections from your listening list. All quizzes, listening tests, mid-term, and final exam will start at the beginning of the class and we will not wait for latecomers.


9/09/2010 Lecture One, Introduction and Beethoven: how to study for a listening exam, selection of the topic for your term paper, and discuss the life of Ludwig van Beethoven and the revolutionary times in which he lived.  Beginning with a comparison between Haydn’s Symphony No. 88 and Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5, we emphasize the fact that Beethoven’s symphony does not reflect a period style but is, rather, his own new style and art work. Beethoven’s willingness to flout authority is discussed as a function of his personality and of his cultural and political environment. We explore Beethoven’s early life and progressive hearing disability with the aim of understanding the sources of his rage, alienation, and independence. We also explore the elements of heroism, radical change, revolution, and Napoleon that helped to inspire Beethoven’s music and allowed for its acceptance. What are Beethoven’s contributions to the Romantic period? How was Beethoven as a pianist, and what did he do for the piano and orchestra? He was driven by self-expression, independence, humanism (but still tempered by an unorthodox but sincere belief in God), liberty, equality, and fraternity.


9/16/2010: Selections for your term paper due. Lecture Two, Beethoven continued: This lecture describes Beethoven’s mature compositional innovations and artistic beliefs through the example of his Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (1808). Beethoven’s four compositional periods are described and discussed, as are his great compositional innovations. These innovations—contextual use of form, motivic development, dramatic progression of movements, use of rhythm—are all a function of Beethoven’s essential artistic belief that music composition is self-expression above all. These innovations give voice to Beethoven’s conviction that the forms and aesthetic rules of the past (the Classical era) apply only to the point that the composer deems them useful. Ultimately, according to Beethoven, form must follow expressive content. As an example of Beethoven’s extraordinary compositional innovations and his self-expressive view of music, this lecture examines his Symphony No. 5, paying special attention to his idiosyncratic use of Classical-era musical form and his remarkable motivic development. Reminder: send your online quiz before midnight.


9/23/2010: Quiz on Chapter 17 Lecture Three, Introduction of the Romantic era: We will show that the progression from Classicism to Romanticism is an evolutionary, not a revolutionary, one. The ultimate difference between Classicism and Romanticism has to do with expressive content, as Romantic-era composers attempted to express ever more in their music. This lecture continues to briefly examine the legacy of Beethoven and the profound effect of Beethoven’s vision of music as self-expression on the music of the nineteenth century. Lastly we introduce five essential Romantic trends that will be studied in detail over the next few lectures and will appear on every quiz and exam for the remainder of the semester: 1). Romantic cultivation of heightened and expressive emotional content; 2). Nationalism; 3). The Romantic fascination with nature, particularly the wilder aspects of nature; 4). Romantic fascination with the supernatural and the macabre. 5). And personalized style and expression.


09/30/2010: Lecture Four,The Program Symphony and Berlioz:  We explore the life, times, and music of one of the great Romantic originals, Hector Berlioz. Neither a child prodigy nor a particularly gifted adolescent, Berlioz grew up in the French countryside and was sent to medical school in Paris at the age of 18. Having quit medical school, he rather late in life, pursued a career in music unhindered by the sort of early musical training that might have constrained his imagination. He entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of 23 and graduated at age 27 in 1830. In that year he wrote his Symphonie Fantastique, a work that combines his four great loves: the dramatic power of Shakespeare, the musical story-telling of opera, the symphonic genre of Beethoven, and himself. Berlioz’s own unrequited love for a Shakespearean actress named Harriet Smithson was the inspiration for the Symphonie Fantastique. We look at the story of the symphony, the fixed melodic idea that is heard in each movement and which represents the “beloved image,” and the final two movements of this five movement symphony, “March to the Scaffold” and “Dream of a Witch’s Sabbath.”  Please refer to the class handout for an analysis of the symphony and we will view a video of his life story as related to Symphonie Fantastique and a video of the symphony by the Berlin Philharmonic. Reminder: send your online quiz before midnight


10/07/2010: Quiz on Chapter 18  Lecture Five, The Concert Overture:

We continue with Symphonic music, specifically late-nineteenth-century orchestral program music: The Program Symphony, The Concert or Symphonic Overture, and the Symphonic or Tone Poem. A discussion of Shakespeare’s importance to the music of the nineteenth century follows. We then introduce the life and personality of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and they conclude with an in-depth examination of his Overture-Fantasy to Romeo and Juliet and a video of the composition of the 1812 Overture.



10/14/2010: Lecture Six, Piano Music of the 19th Century: THIS WILL BE A SPECIAL GUEST LECTURE OF DR. SUE TALLEY. The breaking of the notion of preordained musical form and the compositions of miniatures by early Romantic composers. During the early Romantic era, some composers continued to use the Classical-era forms, others used them sparingly, while still others abandoned them altogether and created new forms in miniature.  Piano miniatures were used in salon concerts, published widely, and the piano concerto became a huge public spectacle. Works by Franz Schubert Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin,Johannes Brahms, Felix Mendelssohn, Louis Moreau Gottschalk, Modest Mussorgsky,  Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Edvard Grieg, Edward MacDowell, Enrique Granados ,Alexander Scriabin, Robert Schumann, and many others were widely known and published for the use of the general public. Some of these composers will be used to illustrate these new forms and we will continue next week with vocal composers. Take Home Mid-Term given out.


10/21/2010:  Lecture seven,  Continuation of Lecture on mineatures adding German Lieder and French Mélodie: Lieder (German language songs) and Mélodie (French language songs) were published  by the tens of thousands in the 19th century. With so many composers writing short selections, we could spend the entire semester listening to examples of this new form. Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler are the most prominent of many composers of Lieder throughout the 19th century for whom Schubert was the inspiration. In France the chief composers were Gabriel Fauré, Ernest Chansson, and Rinaldo Hahn, Cesar Franck, and Claude Debussy. 


10/28/2010:Take Home Mid-Term DUE & IN-CLASS Listening Test  Lecture Eight, The beginning of European Nationalism: This lecture examines the trend of folklore in musical nationalism during the second half of the nineteenth century. It begins with a description of the extraordinary events of 1848, the so-called “year of failed revolutions. “ With the destruction of the revolutionary movement assured, artistic nationalism became one of the few remaining modes of nationalist expression. This is a continuation of the political section introduced in Lecture Three.  We return to Franz Liszt, perhaps the most representative instrumental virtuoso/composer of the nineteenth century, and his composition Totentanz. Finally, a few composers of Eastern Europe are discussed, except for Russia, which will be next week. Reminder: send your online quiz before midnight


11/04/2010: Quiz on Chapter 19   plus  Take Home Mid-Term Due!

Lecture Nine: Russian Nationalism, and Church Music: The lecture begins with a brief history of St. Petersburg, a city built by Czar Peter the Great as his window on the west, the most ‘modern” and westernized city in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Russia. Russia’s entry into the greater European community as a result of the defeat of Napoleon and the Decembrist Revolution of I825 are discussed, as is the growing conviction, during the 1820s and l830s, that the Russian language and native Russian music were capable of the highest artistic expression, a conviction realized in the literature of Pushkin and the operas of Mikhail Glinka. The music and ideas of the “Russian Five”—Balakirev, Cui, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Borodin—are discussed and illustrated, with a special emphasis placed on Rimsky-Korsakov and his Russian Easter Overture.  Lastly we will play a few examples of sacred music from the 19th century.  There will not be enough time to listen to very many, so, as in Lecture six, we will continue the topic next week.


11/11/2010: Lecture Ten, The continuation of Church Music and an Introduction to Chamber Music: After introducing some of the best of oratorios and church music of the 19th century for the first half hour we will finish the lecture with the chamber music. We will look at how Chamber Music in the 19th century, changed from the music composed for home use in the 18th century, and became more a form for the professional musicians. We return to the music of Beethoven and while he wrote chamber music for amateurs, such as the Septet of 1800, his last string quartets are very complex works which amateurs would have struggled to play.  After Beethoven, only a few dozen works by composers other than Brahms survive in the repertory of the period. We will look at as many examples as we can of Brahms, Mendelssohn, Mahler, Bruckner, Franck and Strauss.  Reminder: send your online quiz

11/18/2010: Quizzes on Chapter 20 and 21  plus Take Home assignment on Opera.

Lecture Eleven,  French Opera: Opéra Comique, Grand Opera and Ballet Music: This week we finally get to the most successful and widely popular musical form of the early 19th century.  This was not found in the perfumed, refined salons of Chopin's Paris or in the more intellectually earnest artistic circle of Schumann's Germany, but rather where it had been for the preceding 50 years--the opera house. We will be spending the last three lectures on this art form that over-shadowed all others in the 19th century. We begin today with France, from the ponderous operas of Meyerbeer to the more Romantic grand opera with composers such as Bizet (Carmen), Gounod (Faust), Saint-Saëns and Massenet. Reminder: stay up all night, but term paperis due by midnight 12/02/2010—Yes, you may send it via email, or give it in class by hard copy anytime by FRIDAY 12/03. Absolutely not accepted after that date.


12/02/2010: Term paper due! Lecture Twelve: Italian Opera (Bel Canto Opera) and Verdi Italian 19th century music was essentially opera, and its greatest composer, Giuseppe Verdi, whose long life spanned nearly the whole century, while influenced by practically all the currents of Romanticism, retained a certain detachment that set him apart from all of his contemporaries.  First we begin with early nineteenth-century Italian opera. This style of this opera is called bel canto, and its essential composers were Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, and Gioacchino Rossini. Rossini’s opera I Barbieri de Siviglia (The Barber of Seville) is used as an example of the bel canto style. and we will examine two different versions of the Mezzo aria “Una voce poco fa.”  We then continue with an examination of the life and music of Giuseppe Verdi. He was not an innovator or reformer; rather, his operatic style evolved slowly as he sought ever greater refinement of dramatic line, singing technique, and literary truth. To those ends, he did away almost entirely with the differentiation between aria and recitative by the 1850s, used a larger and more important orchestra, and favored characterization and dramatic truth over the vocalizations of the bel canto style. We will look at the final scene from Verdi’s opera Aida as an example of his mature compositional style.


12/09/2010: Take home opera assignment due!  Lecture Thirteen, German Opera: Nationalism and Experimentation and Wagner: Our last lecture continues our three-lecture opera series with an examination of German opera. German opera developed rather late as compared to Italian and French opera. Genuine German opera—in terms of singing style and the nature of its pIots—developed late because it evolved from native German roots, not by imitating and adapting Italian operatic plots and singing style. First there needed to be a use of German literature and musical theater in the late eighteenth century in the hands, respectively, of Goethe and Mozart. Soon after Mozart, the first German Nationalist, Carl Maria von Weber wrote Der Freischütz. Just as, in Italy, there were hundreds of Opera composers, the 19th century basically belonged in Germany to one man: Richard Wagner. We’ll look at the life, ideas, and music of Richard Wagner. Where Verdi was an evolutionary, Wagner was a revolutionary who sought to radically reinterpret the function and substance of music drama in the mid-nineteenth century. Wagner’s early life and his paternity, an issue of great importance to Wagner’s emotional development, affected Wagner’s ideas regarding opera, music drama, and gesarnpkunstwerke. We will study the overture and Act I of Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde as an example of Wagner’s use of the orchestra, leitmotif, and the impact of the his ideas and his own vision of music drama.  To end the class, I will play an explanation of Wagner’s Ring cycle, by Mel Blanc or Anna Russell depending on time.


12/16/2010: Final exam: Listening Test, Short Answer, Essay, and Multiple Choice questions.


Student Handbook Requirement: In addition to the information in the college catalog, all students are responsible for the requirements, regulations, and information in the NCMC Music Handbook.  Please put the following link in your browser:


Electronic Devices: It is expected that ALL electronic devices be MUTED during class time.  Do not answer phone calls or text messages during class. ALL cell phones are to be kept off for all exams. If you are a health care worker, policeman, fireman, or other profession that requires that a cell phone be on, please inform the professor at the beginning of the semester.


Reasonable Accommodation: Any student eligible for and requesting academic accommodations due to a disability is required to provide a letter of accommodation from the Office of Disabilities Support Services within the first two weeks of the beginning of classes. Any student who has a learning disability is encouraged to speak privately Professor Adelaide Pabon the 504 coordinator for Nyack College/New York City




Each paper should be 10 pages long, not including the Bibliography, typed in 12 point with 1” margins, and should contain Chicago-style footnotes and a complete and correctly-notated bibliography.  Sources for your research should include the public library, encyclopedias, biographies, and the Internet—in other words, use at least 5 good sources.  They must be submitted both in hard copy and e-mailed to They will be due no later than week 10 of the semester. Extra credit will be given if the paper is submitted early.  Each student will submit their term papers for publication to the class website and be required to read and comment on two other student papers.   See: How to write a term paper.” on the class website.


1. GUITAR COMPOSITIONS OF THE 19TH CENTURY: Guitar compositions of the 19th century haven't received the attention they deserve, and we are unfamiliar with music which demands a brilliant technique and often superior ability. Please choose from the following composers and speak about their history, availability, and technical difficulty: Fernando Sor, 1778 – 1839; Niccolò Paganini, 1782 – 1840; Dionisio Aguado, 1784 – 1849; Luigi Legnani, 1790 – 1877; Matteo Carcassi, 1792 – 1853; Julián Arcas, 1832 – 1882; Franz Schubert 1797 - 1828; Henrik Rung 1807-1871.


2. LISZT AND HIS MIGHTY INFLUENCE:  Franz Liszt (18ll-1886) was one of the most influential people in the 19th Century.  His generous support of many composers helped them to be published.  Discuss Liszt’s life and far-reaching influence in the realm of music, as well as his promotion of Hungarian music and his many arrangements that promoted Wagner, Bizet, and Verdi, among many others. You could also include an analysis of selected Lieder and Opera Transcriptions of Franz Liszt.


3. ARTHUR SULLIVAN: He was one of the greatest composers of comic opera.  As Saint-Saens states, “Sullivan was as much a satirist in musical notes as Gilbert in the verbal text.” Their repartees in collaboration are reminiscent of the sarcasms of Voltaire. Please write about his comic operas and his collaboration with W. S. Gilbert. These include: The Emerald Isle; Cox and Box; Trial by Jury, The Sorcerer, H.M.S. Pinafore; The Pirates of Penzance; Patience; Iolanthe; Princess Ida, The Mikado; Ruddigore; The Yeomen of the Guard; The Gondoliers; Utopia Limited.


4. THE SPIRITUAL IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY:  Trace the development of the African American spiritual from approximately the beginning to the end of the nineteenth century.  Cite ten examples of spirituals which were also freedom songs.  Explain any changes which came to African American music after the Civil War.  Explain the influence of the spiritual, and particularly the arrangements of Harry T. Burleigh, born 1866, upon the music of Antonin Dvorak, as well as Burleigh’s connection with Edward MacDowell.  Use Internet sources as well as encyclopedias and biographies. 


5. GOTTSCHALK AND THE CARIBBEAN: Gottschalk, a prodigy at the piano, was born in New Orleans in 1829. From early in his childhood, he was exposed to the French and African-tinged Caribbean folk music that characterized the music of the Creoles. It was this bombastic music that left the deepest impression on Gottschalk, later permeating his works and eventually spurring him on to international fame. Write about his life as a performer and his use of Caribbean melodies in his compositions


6. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN: Beethoven has been described as The Man Who Freed Music.  What are the roots of his ROMANTICISM?  Is his First Symphony a point of departure or a farewell to Classicism?  How does he treat the dramatic in the sonata and symphony?  How does he compare to his contemporaries: Louis (Ludwig) Spohr, 1784-1859; Johann Nepomuk Hummel, 1778-1837; and Jan Ladislas Dussek 1760-1812?


7. FANNY MENDELSSOHN AND KLARA SCHUMANN:  Research the lives of two outstanding women musicians of the 19th Century.  Critique their music in comparison with the music of their brother (Mendelssohn) and husband (Schumann).  Trace the development of Klara Schumann’s career, her relationship with her husband and her influence on Johannes Brahms. 


8. TCHAIKOVSKY:  HERO OR VILLAIN?  Please write on the life and music of Russian composer Peter Illich Tchaikovsky. Demonstrates how the composer’s gift of melody, technical proficiency, and his contributions to ballet and opera definitely make him one of the greatest composers of all time. Also write on his personal life and his struggles with his Christian faith on his problem with homosexuality and how his music was regarded in academic circles.

9. GIACOMO MEYERBEER:  This interesting character had a great influence on the opera of his day.  There is actually a Meyerbeer fan club with a wonderful Web site.  Explain Meyerbeer’s influence on opera and read some critical articles about him.  Listen to the Meyerbeer opera, “Robert le Diable” and trace its critical reception in France, England, and America.  Why was Meyerbeer able to dominate French opera for a number of years?  These and other questions should be answered in your research.  Round out the paper by giving an idea of what the opera scene was like in the Romantic Era, especially in France

10. SAMUEL COLERIDGE-TAYLOR: Write an examination of his Influence on African American Musicians. His best known work, which was immensely popular during his lifetime, is "Hiawatha", a trilogy based upon poems by Longfellow. He also wrote other works, such as the songs "African Romances", the "African Suite" for piano, and "Five Choral Ballads", a setting of poems on slavery by Longfellow, which include influences from native African music.

11. The NEO-CLASSICISTS: How did the Neo-Classicists: Johannes Brahms, 1833-1897; Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, 1809-1847; and  Cesar Franck, 1822-1890 continue the classical tradition while most of the other composers were changing to a Romantic style?  Johannes Brahms is particularly interesting as he is both a Neo-Classicist and considered a successor to Beethoven.

12. JOHN PHILIP SOUSA: "Salesman of Americanism, Globetrotter, and Musician" Please write about Sousa, known as the "March King," who ranks among the most famous American composers and conductors. On December 25, 1896, he composed The Stars and Stripes Forever, the official march of the United States of America. Sousa was the inventor of the sousaphone. His band was the most popular musical act in the world for over 30 years. The first American musical organization to go on world tour and a band that whose members were the best in the world on their instruments.


13. EDWARD MACDOWELL: MacDowell was an American composer who lived in New York City and taught at Columbia University.  He was also a composer of merit, one of the only noted Romantic composers of America.  His story is interesting and there should be some rather readily-available research material on him.  He is not covered in the Hanning textbook—not even mentioned, which seems to me to be a rather serious oversight.  The class would be enriched by a presentation of a paper about Edward MacDowell.


14. DESCRIPTION OF GIUSEPPE VERD’S OPERA “La Traviata”: This was composed in 1853. In the 151 years since that time, it has become one of the best-known and most frequently performed operas in the Western world. The story of the opera revolves around the courtesan Violetta Valery and the man she loves, Alfredo. Misunderstandings and confusions separate the two who are reunited by the end of the opera, only to face the death of Violetta. Please write about the background of the story, an analysis of the music and its affect on the opera world on the 19th century in general.


15. ORGAN MUSIC OF THE 19TH CENTURY: There was a great change in style of composition and also sound of the organ in the 19th century. Please investigate the repertory and compare this music with the classical and Baroque sound of the organ.  Mention Charles-Marie Widor and César Franck, and some of the following composers:  Anton Bruckner, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Johannes Brahms, Léon Boëllmann,, Louis James Alfred, Lefébure-Wély, Joseph Ignaz Bieling, Armin Knab, Franz Xaver Schnizer, Sigfrid Karg-Elert, and Arthur Piechler.


16. POLAND AND NATIONALISM IN MUSIC:  Poland was almost destroyed in the 19th century, because it was divided up among conquering nations.  Discuss the life and influence of Frédéric François Chopin, the Pole who spent a great deal of his life in France.  Discuss the dance forms which Chopin introduced to the European public (such as Polonaise, Mazurka, etc.).  Interweave a brief life of Chopin into your paper.


17. PROGRAMMATIC MUSIC: "The painter turns a poem into a painting; the musician sets a picture to music” (Robert Schumann). There is a special importance of program music in the Romantic era.  Please write about the differences between programmatic and absolute forms. Starting with the Symphony Fantastique of Berlioz, trace the emergence of Programmatic Music, especially for the symphony orchestra. Nationalism provided the subjects for many programmatic compositions and is intended to musically represent a non-musical theme. Mention at least five composers in addition to Berlioz, the Symphonic Poems of Liszt, and  the composer Bedrich Smetana and his symphonic poem, The Moldau.


18. GIUSEPPE VERDI AND ITALY:  “Viva VERDI” became a political slogan, showing patriotism and support for the Italian king, as well as a tribute to a wonderful opera composer.  Besides discussing the music of Verdi, tell how he changed his world, through his political involvement in the life of Italy.


19. BEETHOVEN AND THE 9TH SYMPHONY, Society and Music; Historical Context: One of the fascinating areas of research is the historical period surrounding a composer’s work. In 1815, during the Congress of Vienna, “perpetual spying was the order of the day” (Talleyrand). Artists such as Beethoven, who were known for their republican views, were suspect. Beethoven’s anxiety increased; he had financial reversals and there was the disappearance or death of many of his aristocratic supporters.  Beethoven, in his new symphony that would have Schiller’s ode as the centerpiece, meant to leave to posterity a public monument of his liberal beliefs. Please write about his decision to fashion a great work that would convey the poet’s utopian vision of human brotherhood as a statement of support for the principles of democracy at a time when direct political action on behalf of such principles was difficult and dangerous.


20. NATIONALISM IN RUSSIAN MUSIC:  Nationalism was a very important factor in the 19th Century, and it was no less important in music than in anything else.  Explain the emergence of nationalism in the Russian school, and talk about the “Mighty Five” and their influence on Russian music.  Cite examples of folk and religious music which inspired Russian music in the 19th Century.


21. THE BALLET MUSIC OF THE 19TH CENTURY:  Not a separate subject in our text, this is a very interesting topic.  Speak about the various composers and their works.  Tell about the great dancers of the century, as well, and how they changed their art. 


22. CHANGES IN THE POLITICAL MAP OF EUROPE: France, German States and Prussia; Austria and Salzburg; Italy; Great Britain; Scandinavia. How did the life of musicians change?  Please consider the changing patronage and music; the emergence of the public concert; publishing; connoisseur and amateur musicians; the economics of being a musician: social status, salary, working conditions; expenses.


23. THE VIRTUOSO PERFORMER:  Trace the development of the virtuoso performer in the 19th century.  Mention several areas—instrumentalists, including pianists; vocalists, conductors, dancers—who influenced the performance of their times.  Include information on “child prodigies.” 


24. LEOS JANACEK: His life in relationship to his success as a composer. Janacek's reputation outside Czechoslovakia and German-speaking countries was first made as an instrumental composer. A childhood spent in a monastery singing in the choir, and an adulthood where he fell passionately in love with an opera star made Leos Janacek who he was. As a result, he was regarded not only as a Czech composer worthy to be ranked with Smetana and Dvorak, but also as one of the most substantial and original opera composers of Eastern Europe.


25. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE OPERA Lucia di Lammermoor: Please discuss the significance of Sir Walter Scott Lucie of Lammermoor, and observe how Lucie de Lammermoor compares with the opera by the same name.  Please show the difference in plots and analyze the music of the opera by Donizetti.


26. WAGNER’S RING DES NIBELUNGEN: When Wagner set the Ring to music, he intended the orchestra to act in the fashion of a chorus from a classic Greek tragedy, setting the mood and commenting on the action. In order to allow a nonverbal musical line to reflect on the plot, Wagner developed musically complex symbols to communicate his thoughts to the listener. Wagner's Ring Cycle is possibly the most complex musical work in existence. Wagner's basic method was to develop an extensive set of musical themes, leitmotivs, associated with important characters, plot elements, objects, and motivations in the cycle.  Please write about Wagner’s use of leitmotivs.  Note: The leitmotivs exist in families with many derived from a basic set of themes of the plot. A large number of leitmotivs are related and transformed in the course of the action of the Ring cycle. While meant as musical humor, Anna Russell’s explanation of the cycle will be a good place to start.


27. GEORGES BIZET’S CARMEN:  Please discuss Bizet's Carmen and decide whether it should be designated  a "realistic" or “Verismo” Opera. Analyze the music and the difficulties in the first performance and various later versions of the opera. You may wish to view several film versions of the story and report on their differences.


28. HOW DID ORATORIO CHANGE FROM THE 18TH TO THE 19TH CENTURY?  Please look mat the oratorio and cantata and show the difference both in style and importance in society.  Include in your discussion, but do not limit yourself to the following selections:  Beethoven Missa Solennis, Symphony No. 9; Berlioz — L’Enfance du Christ, La Damnation de Faust, Requiem; Brahms — A German Requiem; Bruckner — Te Deum; Faure — Requiem; Gounod ‑ St. Cecelia Mass; Mendelssohn — Elijah, St. Paul; Rossini — Stabat Mater; Saint-Saens — Christmas Oratorio; and Verdi — Requiem.

29. WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF CHAMBER MUSIC IN SOCIETY?:  For many romantic composers, chamber music was an awkward form; on one hand, it lacked the personal expressiveness of the then-popular solo piano piece, but on the other hand it did not offer the colors and overpowering sound of the full orchestra. For these reasons, composers such as Berlioz, Liszt, Chopin, Mahler, and Wagner wrote very little chamber music, or ignored the form completely. Many composers, especially those who still held to various Classical ideals, continued to produce chamber music. Please look at the compositions of Ludwig van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Peter Tchaikovsky, Felix Mendelssohn and Antonin Dvorak.  Hint: Many of the chamber pieces written during the time were intended for professional chamber groups. Because of this, amateur chamber players were generally unable to play the music of the day, and chamber music moved out of the homes of enthusiasts and into the concert halls.


30. Extra Credit paper available to all students:

Does Music Construct Society Rather than Reflect Cultural Identities?  Please consider the question of the interaction between music and culture and discuss the influences that music has on culture or how music influences society. You may come to an unusual conclusion, and there is no definite answer. This paper is definitely one of your opinion rather than researching a particular event or composer. Please try to limit yourself to the 19th century; however, you could use some examples of other periods. In discussing this topic, consider various types of music, with attention paid to the interpretation of music, the nature of a consumer society, and the way in which music may be seen as propaganda.



1. To graduate students who have acquired and developed the academic skills of reading carefully and critically, communicating clearly and cogently, thinking analytically and synthetically.



     1a. By designing into the music history sequence a comprehensive overview of western music and related religious,

      philosophical, political, scientific, and social developments.

     1b. By designing into music literature courses the appreciation and understanding of non-Western music of the church,

           including research components and the analysis of contemporary phenomena in these areas.

     1c. By fostering the aural development, kinesthetic processes, and aesthetic sensitivities which form the basis of

           professional caliber musicianship.



2.  To graduate students who have achieved a broad understanding of human learning.

     2a. By fostering in our students the skills and motivation for life-long learning and participation in music.

     2b. By encouraging all students to value the creativity of the human spirit and the aesthetic dimension of life.

     2c. By promoting involvement in campus life through participation in aesthetic and cultural activities.

3. To graduate students who have achieved an in-depth understanding of one  field of study by meeting the requirements of at least one major


     3a. By training our students to acquire the theoretical and practical skills required by music educators, church

           musicians, performers and composers.

     3b. By fostering a broad knowledge of music literature, both sacred and secular, through study and performance.

     3c. By employing a competency-based approach for course design and requirements throughout the program while

           encouraging artistic creativity.

     3d. By cultivating career programs and awareness in the various music and music- related fields.

     3e. By utilizing the cultural resources of various metropolitan New York area institutions.

4. To graduate students who have achieved a basic Christian worldview understanding which can serve as a basis for interpreting experience


     4a. By providing experiences in Christian ministry involving music in the Christian and  Missionary Alliance and other


     4b. By promoting a sense of Christian love and caring throughout the endeavors of the School of  Music.

     4c. By building the self-esteem of the individual through musical achievement in the Christian context.

     4d. By fostering a respect for diverse forms of music, worship, and culture.

5. To strengthen a sense of civic responsibility to the community


     5a. By promoting in our students an appreciation for the opportunities and responsibilities which exist in a democratic

           society concerning the arts.

     5b. By encouraging involvement in civic affairs through music and the allied arts



1- Socially Relevant

1a. Students will recognize the value of economic, political, social, and systems as tools for positive change.

1b. Students will apply a foundation of compassion and integrity to their chosen field of study.

1c. Students will demonstrate servant leadership as they engage the community and marketplace.


2- Academically Excellent

2a. Students will attain an educational foundation in arts and humanities, science, mathematics, and social science.

2b. Students will be able to communicate in oral and written form and demonstrate information and technological literacy.

2c. Students will demonstrate critical thinking, problem-solving, and research skills across the curriculum.


3- Globally Engaged

3a. Students will understand the interplay of historical, cultural, and geographical realities of the global community.

3b. Students will value diversity through an understanding of worldviews, languages, cultures, and peoples.

3c. Students will engage in service opportunities within the global community.


4- Intentionally Diverse

4a. Students will understand the heritages and traditions of diverse peoples and cultures.

4b. Students will appreciate the need to promote biblical principles of social equality.

4c. Students will engage in interactions and relationships with those from diverse backgrounds.


5- Emphasizing Personal Transformation

5a. Students will grow in their faith as they pursue God’s purpose in their lives.

5b. Students will integrate their Christian worldview into learning and service.

           5c. Students will apply discipleship principles to assist in the personal transformation of others.