There are, of course,
thousands of websites on Early Music. Here
are some pages which link to a huge number of sources.
There are Biographies, Link Index Pages, MIDI
files, MP3 and Real
Audio files, University Course
Outlines and Syllabi, Links to General History of Medieval and Renaissance
Period, Information on Instruments, Timelines, and almost anything else you need
to study Early Music on the internet. "Early Music" is generally
considered to be music written in the Baroque period or earlier (i.e., about
1750 or earlier). There are enough sites which specialize in topics related to
music of the Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods to warrant many
dedicated pages of links, though it should be remembered that sites listed on
other link pages, especially commercial sites, also have significant amounts of
information pertinent to all periods of music as well.
1. Link Index
(This is Choralnet’s Early
Music Page. The web pages listed are not in order of priority.)
the Internet Center for Choral Music—Many early music links.
This is an
example of web sites, throughout this webliography, that include pages with many
useful links. As this is the first
page in the webliography, I will list the links headings and notate all other
such pages as a -link
Alamire Music Publishers (facsimiles)
• American Musicological Society•
Associazione Internazionale Studi di Canto Gregriano (Gregorian chant)•
Brasilian Early Music (in Portugese)
• Early Printed
Collections at the British Library •
Doctoral Dissertations in Musicology •
Early Music America• Early Music
electronic mail list • Early
Music FAQ • Early Music New York City Early Music Vocal Ensembles
• Early Music Women Composers• Fourteenth
Century Music Databases • The
Gregorian Association• Gregorian
Chant • Gregorian Chant
Bibliography • Gregorian Chant Notation •
Gregorian Chant Primer (tutorial) • Illustrated Guide to Medieval and
Renaissance Instruments • on-line reference book for Medieval Studies
• Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae • Novitiae Cantus Gregorian Chant
Newsletter • The Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society •
Completorium: Polish Earl Music • R&B: Earl Music Links
• Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies
• Renaissance Liturgical Imprints: A Census
• Roger Wagner Center for Choral Studies • Thesaurus Musicarum
Italicarum• Thesaurus Musicarum
Latinarum • White Mensural
and Baroque Music:
Written by Dr. Gordon Callon, from Acadia University, with links to his
other classes. Fine resource on the
following topics: Renaissance Music
History, Renaissance General, Renaissance & Baroque Art, Instruments,
Baroque Music History, Renaissance Dance, General
Reference, Timelines & Chronologies, Bibliographies, Notation,
Sources, Online Music Scores to Download, Facsimiles, Iconographic sources, Acadia Earl Music Archive,
Score Links, Reference Sources and Resources for Papers, New Grove Dictionary,
Seventeenth Century Art, and Online Dictionaries, Glossaries &
Encyclopedias. VERY GOOD RESOURCE :
- link Index page-
Musicology: Music History and Composers:
For all eras but very useful It includes many links but the most useful for
early music are the following: Music
History Outline of the classic textbook by Grout
& Palisca, Music history
outlines are short summaries, biographies, some pictures, Music
History overviews including other disciplines (art/artists, political
leaders, scientists, philosophers), Ancient
Greek music. A concise history with pictures of instruments. -link
Emory & Henry College Music Department:
301 [Antiquity to 1750] As
always, Emory University covers it all! -link
- Historia de la música:
amount of Music history links for all eras but many great resources. -link index page.-
Music Network: Dedicated to
the support and promotion of early music and historical performance by providing
information and services which would benefit and help early music organizations,
ensembles and solo musicians (such as free web hosting, instrument exchange,
help with organization of concerts, to provide information about education,
master classes, etc.). To help the growth of early music community on the web
and in every community around the world - Link Index Page
Net : Biographies, Early Music
Concerts & Festivals, Early Music Societies & Organizations, Early Music
Databases, Archives & Collections, and Early Music Commercial Sites. –
Link Index Page-
Early Music Links Primarily devoted to recordings - Link Index Page-
Early Music List: - Link Index
Page- Includes a page that demonstrates the sound of some odd instruments
such as old crumhorns.
ACADEMY for their Early
Music. - Link Index Page-
For their Early
Music. This even includes recipes!
The second link is a complete listing of all of their music history
pages. - Link Index Page-
Medieval and Renaissance Music: Annotated- Link Index Page
Early Music, Early Style: 141 links, many of them commercial. - Link Index Page
Mellon's Hunt Library: Musicology/Music
History/Early Music -
Link Index Page –
DMOZ: 310 Early music
sites. - Link Index Page-
Renaissance and Baroque Society of Pittsburgh:
Early Music Links: in 19 categories - Link Index Page -
Club: Early Music
Links: in 25 categories, mostly late Baroque. -
Link Index Page -
Viola da Gamba Society of America - Link Index Page -
Music Resources: - Link Index Page
All eras. -link index page- everything from dissertations on
Baroque music to links. MANY
sub-pages of links.
a librarian's choice of the best of the Web -link
index page- Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
History Links: -link index
page- On History NOT
Music History These free multimedia history lessons examine the events of
history that shaped our modern world.
This is a web site that
shows how a person in the middle ages might have lived. Topics include: Alcohol
of the Middle Ages, Architecture Barbarian Tribes, Black Death, Famine &
Plagues, Byzantine Era, Calendars & Book of Hours, The Carolingians,
Castles, Chivalry, Church & Religion, Costumes, Clothing & Textiles,
Crusades, Culture, Daily Life, Documents, Economics, Festivals, Food, Fuedalism
& Manorialism, Guilds or Gilds, Heretics, Images, Jewish Religion &
Jews, King Arthur. The Holy Grail & Merlin, Law & MagnaCarta,
Literature, Magic, Math, Medicine, Monastaries, Music Musicians &
Instruments, Norman Conquest, Philosophy, Population, Punishments, Printing
Press & Johann Gutenberg, Runes, Social Classes, Slave Trade & Slave
Laws, Taxes & Tithes, Technology Science & Inventions, Terms, Time
Lines, Trivia, Vikings, Wars & Revolts, and Witchcraft. -link index page-
and Music History: Indiana
University, School of Music. Articles, Library resources, and Internet links.
-Link index page-
and Music: Wabash
Center; Guide to Internet resources for teaching and learning theology and
Religion. Generally, this is a site of all eras including early music and
Gregorian chant from Princeton University.
Library, sources, etc. -link
Real Audio and MP3 pages:
These are web pages that stream actual recordings.
Some are excerpts and others are long compositions.
The first gives all the musical examples from the Norton Anthology
and more. From these web pages
alone there are all the listening examples you need for the Nyack Music 217
MUSIC 20 ONLINE: by Professor Norman E. Smith, Penn
University, This is audio examples for a wonderful Music History
Online course with 51 musical
compositions written in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Baroque.
Recordings of 25 of these compositions are found in The Norton Recordings and
SUPPLEMENTARY COMPOSITIONS, 5
EXAMPLES OF MUSICAL TEXTURES, 3
EXAMPLES OF PRE-NOTRE DAME POLYPHONY, ADDITIONAL
COMPOSITIONS FOR LISTENING.
REAL AUDIO FORMAT
Commercial site with some fine Real Audio Streaming. Musical examples
from eight centuries of music. Innovative,
historically-Informed, and multi-cultural. http://www.hesperus.org/
and Early Music: A gallery of pictures
for of the Medieval era. This
includes pictures of early instruments and 15 second examples in Real
Audio format of how they sound.
In Spanish, Bio
of Monteverdi with two Real Audio Examples of his music. Links
to other composers, as well.
Consort: Very short Real
Audio clips of Renaissance instruments.
Znamenny Chant from NPR. A
live concert from Merkin Hall.
43 minutes of Real Audio Format with commentary. (13th Century)+ (4 other programs
that are not early music)
example and short Bio from Norton CD’s. This
one is on Dufay. You can use the same link and just substitute the name of the
<composer.htm> at the end to see and hear their entire collection.
Commercial site with 21 Real Audio Examples.
Winchester Cathedral Choir: The
Choir of Winchester Cathedral is recognized as one of Britain's leading
Cathedral choirs. 6 very
site with 10 Real Audio examples of their music.
Commercial site with 25 short examples
in Real Audio
format of Tomas Louis de Victoria.
MUSIC: Georgian church
and folk music XII c. performed by MARKELL'S VOICES choir; Very beautiful in MP3
Commercial site, Fine
MP3 files of the following
composers: Guillaume Du Fay, Jacob
Arcadelt, Hildegard of Bingen, and 3 chant examples.
music, MP3 Libraries
of many eras with a great deal of Early Music. Some very good examples.
mia bella in MP3 format
Dowland's Lute Fretting: How
the music was written, the kind of frets, music theory from the era, and MP3
Three MP3 files, two
by Bach and one by Dowland. You can
follow the website to search for many more.
files from many eras. Large library
These pages, some have a thousand
entries, play compositions on your computer sound card or keyboard. To hear them
properly you have to set your keyboard to a General MIDI setting and they
will only sound as good as the samples you have loaded into the keyboard or
computer. They are small files and thousands could fit on one floppy disk if you
Classical Archives. MIDI files.
773 compositions from 170 composers of early music.
These play with your sound card and are only as good as the sound card or
keyboard you are using. (The
complete collection includes over 1000 composers from every era). They have
tried to have examples from all the composers listed in the Concise Oxford
Dictionary of Music (4th Ed.).
from the above page for Vitry, Machaut, Josquin, and Willaert.
Carols, and Psalms.
The background MIDI
files used throughout their Mostly
Medieval programs. They are
listed with the song title, composer, file size, and other information where
Music on Midi: Many
files and four MP3 files of Lute, Guitar,
Home Page: How to
make, play, and hear a crumhorn. MIDI
files of compositions and many links.
Monteverdi: Bio and MIDI
Music: MIDI files
and Bios of the following: LASSO,
, and HÄNDEL
Belluci: MIDI page and - Link
Index Page –
MIDI files: These are MIDI
files of (mostly) Gregorian
Chants created by Richard
Lee using NoteWorthy
of MIDI files. Their goal is to gather all the harpsichord
midi files around the net, or at least provide a link to them.
Baroque: A collection of MIDI
files from early English composers.
Musical Midi page: MIDI
files and Bio of Josquin Des Pres
Sankey: MIDI page
and bio of William Byrd. Many
the Mulliner Book: MIDI
page. The Mulliner Book was a workbook of keyboard pieces compiled by an
unknown English organist in the mid 16th century. English pipe organs at that
time were simpler than those on the continent, with few stops, sometimes a
second manual, but very rarely a pedal board, plus consort music for viols.
Internet Renaissance Band: Early
music MIDI files.
Theory Online: By
Roger Wibberley, Goldsmiths University of
London, Music Theory of Early Music with
MIDI files of the following composers:
, GILLES BINCHOIS
CORDIER . GUILLAUME
DUFAY , JOHN
DUNSTABLE , PIERRE
FONTAINE , GROSSIN
DE LANTINS , JACOPIN
SELESSES , JACQUES
home site, in French, with maps, and historical background of the composers:
Keyboard Music of William Byrd:
All the keyboard music of Byrd in MIDI
of Classical Music:
All eras, short bios and a MIDI
example of some. Not very
THE CYBER HYMNAL:
This site has over 2,900 Christian hymns and Gospel songs from many
denominations. You’ll find lyrics, scores, MIDI
files, pictures, history, and more. Early Music, Composers, through the 20th
An example from above
website for Heinrich Isaac
In Italian. MIDI files of a few composers.
The same pieces with
individual parts played (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass)
Marenzio: Who was one of the finest Madrigalists of the 16th
century. This page is in Italian
with many MIDI file
In Italian. Midi files,
info, and links about Gesualdo.
Early Music MIDI Files: SEQUENCED
BY F. VILLANUEVA
SITE MANTAINED WITH THE COLLABORATION OF CHARLES K. MOSS. Many composers and sacred and instrumental music. Well over 100 selections.
An example from the
above web site:
LUIS DE VICTORIA: Bio and many MIDI
Free sheet music on the web; some in very
good PDF format.
I have transcribed: Hundreds early music composers, many madrigals, especially from England
format and MIDI
files for downloading.
Free PDF files. This
one is Arcadelt.
example from the above site: William Byrd Choral Sheet Music:
Sheet Music Archive:
The Recorder Archive, Tons of free sheet music for Recorded (Flute) and
Free sheet music: This
example is Heinrich Isaac’s, “Ach, meydlein rein”, with free sheet music
and a MIDI
file so you can hear it.
Cipriano de Rore: “Ancor, che col partire”
one more example: Weelkes: “The Nightingale”
Choral Sheet Music:
College Courses and Outlines of the Grout text:
syllabi of early music courses, other resources from colleges. Please look as
well at the -link index pages- above.
History Resources: This
page is not intended as a stand-alone account of Western musical history, but
rather as an aid to assist students using one of the standard music history
texts (in particular, the Grout/Palisca
volume). An extensive outline and timelines.
Chapter reviews by Dr. Warfield. Substitute the number between Grout and
review in the following link to see all chapters. IE: <Grout?review>
Music: A text summary of
clickable maps. 195 different charts, as many as 250 embedded definitions.
San Diego State University
(for their Music 345 class)
European Music: Wonderful
pictures of early instruments from San Diego State University, for their Music
151 class). (You could search for more pages from
the general SDU music site).
University of Toronto: Centre for Research in Early English Drama. Sub-page headings: Records of Early English Drama, "All the World's a Stage", WWW Links for Theatre History and Early Music, Shakespeare,
have many web pages that augment their music history curriculum.
Here are a few examples. The
site is password protected, however, if you search for the course number and
insert it, new pages will appear.
Database: From Stanford
University. Short database of
composers. The second page is a
database of 7000 operas, including librettos.
(Early Music through the 20th century). Ffor example Peri’s
the second half of Music 322 by Dr. Dane Kusic, University
321: Earlier references in outline
format by the same author.
You can take the above link and substitute October or September, etc. in the
link for more of the outline.
Wikla's Early Music Pages: The
Lute, treatises, bibliographies, theory, and articles from Helsinki
of the Pre-Classical Music Period: List of composers from Baylor
History I: By Prof. Chris Brunt of Millsap
Complete Syllabus of Ancient music to the Renaissance: Detailed
Course Syllabus, Listening
Guide, Handouts, Plainsong
Chant, Mass, Offices, Gregorian
Text Translations, Transition
to the Renaissance, Renaissance
Period Masterworks, Renaissance
Renaissance Composers, Counter-Reformation
Cathedral Composers, Late
Renaissance Mannerism, Landmark
Dates in Music History, and Research
Internet Jewish History Sourcebook:
Fordham University: sources and MIDI files
of early Jewish Music.
Internet History Sourcebooks:
Also from Fordham University, (the home site of the above):
They are collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts
presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use.
Also included are comprehensive
bibliographies, Medieval Europe, The Crusades, Byzantine
Civilization I: to 1715, Guide
to Byzantine and Medieval Studies on the Internet, the
University Center for Medieval Studies, etc.
Music 343, History and Literature I: Outline and Syllabus.
Baroque Music: (1600 – 1750) by Professor Carole Chardonnay. Outline and articles of the Baroque era
for MUSIC 100. Links to the other classes including early music at Orange
Timelines: Obviously some are
better than others.
Chronology of Music Events, (timeline), with some non-musical events thrown in for good measure.(4000
BC to 1651 AD) http://www.onr.com/user/steveh/timeline.htm
Short history timeline of AD 133-1500
Timeline: From Edinboro
of Music History, UC Davis:
All eras but include Forms
and Movement Types, Summary,
and Links, and Timeline,
from each period of music.
What When: Interactive
Historical Timeline of composers of all eras.
LINE OF MAJOR CLASSICAL COMPOSERS: Shows
a few from each century, 1300-2000.
Good timeline and some links to MP3
Very extensive in the Christian era prior to 1453. Sub-pages include: The
Apostolic Era, The Early Church, The Church in Germanic Europe, The Church in
Eastern Europe, The Church Outside the Roman Empire, and Christian Missions.
Europe: (AD 300-1500) second page
on General History of the period from the same authors.
Chronological Look at the Evolution of Music in Western Society: Sub-pages: Pre-Christian Times, Early Christian Times, THE
ARS ANTIQUA and Early ORGANUM,
The Ars Nova,
England and the Burgundian Lands, The Early Renaissance, The High Renaissance,
and the Baroque.
Web pages dedicated to Gregorian and
other types of chant. See also the -Link index pages- above.
A database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant
A database for Gregorian Chant:
BYZANTINE MUSIC WEB SITE:
BYZANTINE CHANT, BYZANTINE
CHANT STUDIES PAGE, by M Y R I O B I B L O S, The
E-Text Library of the church of Greece.
Advent Catholic Encyclopedia:
Large article on Plainchant.
Schola: School at
University of Arkansas, links for Gregorian chant, how to sing chant, Gregorian
Missal and the Liber Usualis
, how to read the music, etc.
Chant Links for the
Ancient Eastern Orthodox chant.
From Introduction to Liturgical Theology, Fr.
Alexander Schmemann summarizes
the dynamic, motivation, and purpose of the Church in developing its music and
chanting in the following section entitled "Chanting and Music" in
Medieval Orthodox churches.
Comments: Shirat Hayam-
An ancient triumphant song of Jewish victory
chant on the Net:
Huge amount of sources.
Nicholas Kastanas text on how to sing and write Byzantine music.
Brooklyn College Choir Men singing Byzantine music. http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/sounds/greekch.ra
Music Lessons: Notation,
General Pages on Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music:
The Instruments, (like Recorder and
Lute), Culture, Manuscripts, etc.
Home Page: Reading and
transcribing white mensural notation and a page on Michael Preatorius.
Manuscripts: One page showing how the pages were written.
next page is an example of a second page from the above college
following is an Index of other pages.
Music FAQ: Frequently
Asked Questions about Early Music, The web's
largest reference for European Medieval and Renaissance music since 1994. What
is Early Music?, Chord
structure in medieval music, What are hexachords?,
composers, harmony, etc…
The BAROQUE MUSIC Home Page:
A wonderful site that has many sources especially regarding the Baroque.
are three examples from the above page:
discussion of the essential issues involved.
Composers and Musicians in Historical context, Biographical notes, and
Ilnytskyi. The purpose of this page is to introduce early music
primarily in the Ukraine, especially early Christmas carols.
Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Instruments: Thirty two wonderful pictures and explanations about how manufacture
and how they were played..
Vivien Yarrow: A Brief Introduction to Modes The Church Modes and
Early and Traditional European Music
Praha: A brief history of
music from a Czech perspective. (In English)
Women’s Early Music and Recordings:
A large resource of women composers.
Everything you want to know about the recorder.
Home Page (Australia): ditto
John Rylands Library:
Music Manuscripts, Staffless Chant, Guido D’Arezzo, Tudor music of
Henry VIII, the hexachord fantasy based on the first six notes of the
scale, Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La, ascending or descending.
Saraband: Sub-Pages: Dates of the main composers,
What is early music?, Facsimiles, What is a good edition?, Figured Bass,
Vibrato: some historical notes, Quotations, Viola da Gamba, etc.
20 centuries of church history.
for the Lute:
Very long list of composers, some with bios.
Counterpoint Study Guide: Includes
the Use of Accidentals in 16th-Century Style, The Modal System, Melodic Writing
and Text Setting, Consonance and Dissonance, Imitative Counterpoint, etc.
Pirandello Lyceum Essays: Essays
on Italian subjects including early music, art, and governments.
American Society of Ancient Instruments:
Commercial site of performers in Philadelphia of 17th
In Italian about the 12th
and 13th centuries, a website about Troubadors
BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CHURCH MUSIC:
study of Church music. From Japan.
Internet Public Library: Music
History 102: A Guide to Western
Composers and their Music
of Western Music History:
Short Outline of all eras.
Renaissance to Baroque: Art, Music, and Philosophical outlines showing all three
areas of study.
of musical settings of the Requiem Mass: All Eras: Machaut to the present. (1600 Requiems identified)
A British Choir but links to all the
choirs in Europe! And The
Classical Music Web Ring. The Classical Music Web Ring is maintained without
charge either to our many users or to 1500 classical music + member sites. (GMN.COM)
California State University Los Angeles, a paper on Style Analysis: A
Comparison of Byrd's Ave Vrum Corpus with His Sacred Vocal Polyphony via a
Quadrant Framework Analysis.
Tuning for Beginners:
12 different tuning methods.
diatonic scale, 12
note equal temperament, Meantone
overtone series, Just
comma meantone, Equal
from around the world, The
tuning mini-FAQ, history of European tunings
and Some books to read.
Diction Domain: How
to pronounce many languages both modern and ancient.
Music: In the Italian Cinquecento, outside Venice and Rome.
Many examples, bios, and links to secular and lute music.
is the home of the above: Fifty years ago, when Deutsche Grammophon started its pioneering Archiv
Produktion label devoted to (increasingly authentic) performances of early
music, the ambitious plan organized the works that were to be recorded in
"Research Periods" and through the early 1970s all recordings on that
label were classified according to that scheme.
Lied and song text page: An Archive of
Texts to Lieder (Art Songs) and Other Classical Vocal Pieces: 2,345 Composers)
and 29 Languages
and some early composers.
An example from the web
Caccini: List of his songs and
Compositori importanti nella storia della musica: In
Italian, Bios of the top composers
for 4 centuries with pictures.
Of A Sunday Morning:
Pacifica, CA, radio station notes,
on many early music composers it has broadcast.
Web Pages dedicated to a single composer:
example of a composer from above.
Fabulous English Madrigalist, Weelkes
A Website dedicated to his works.
Luis de Victoria:
Paper by Joti
Rockwell for Haverford College.
And one on Guillaume DuFay:
Nuper Rosarum Flores
GESUALDO BIOGRAFIA: Bio with some pictures, in Italian
And a second page:
and Notre Dame Organum:
Dunstable and Orlando di Lasso: by
the same author
and The Classical Music Pages: Bio
of Monteverdi from Groves Dictionary. The second page is a searchpage for
information about music or composers according to: Musical
Epoch - Baroque, Classic, etc. Musical
Form - Opera, Symphony, String Quartet, etc. Composer's
Name, Musical Instruments, Western
Music: A Short History , Melody,
Harmony, and Rhythm.
The third page is an example, again, from the same source, of a
bio of Schutz.
médiévale: In French.
The music of
Adam de la Halle, music manuscripts : this
is mostly about medieval literature and the likely related domains, including
music, if I understand the French correctly.
Chant et de Ditté Nouvelle: A paper
Web Site Guide:
Listing of John Dunstable sources.
Life and Works of Hildegard von Bingen: From UCSB, Bio, Timeline, Musical examples, -Links
index page-, etc.
Her lyrics in Latin and English, plus links.
Beatrice de Dia:
Woman composer of circa. 1212, with links to many Early Music Women
Short bio of Hans Sachs.
Short outline, bio, and links.
Ockeghem Home Page:
and Bibliography of his music.
and bibliography of his music.
di Lasso: Bio and short list of links.
how he invented Opera.
Life and Music of Claudio Monteverdi: One
of many papers by a Cambridge student and musical examples.
From the Internet Public Library
CLAUDIO MONTEVERDI: Life,
Monteverdi's contemporaries, and The Lost Music.
web site is devoted to the 17th-century Venetian composer Barbara Strozzi. One
of the better-known female composers of the Baroque period, Strozzi has one of
the largest surviving musical outputs of any early woman composer, rivaled
perhaps only by Hildegard of Bingen, some 500 years her elder
Gabrieli: Short bio of
are many other pages dedicated to individual composers. It is up to you to find
them. These Web Sites were all in operation as of August 11, 2001.
are a few other useful pages:
Ewer’s Music Theory
Classical Radio Station finder.
Public Domain Sheet Music
Internet Classics Archive
Free Music Scores
New York Public Library
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
History of the English Language
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Art History Resources on the Web
National Gallery of Art
Art Museum Network
Art History on the Web